Brucellosis is a disease of mainly cattle, swine, goats, sheep and dogs. The infection is transmitted to humans by animals through direct contact with infected materials like afterbirth or indirectly by ingestion of animal products and by inhalation of airborne agents. Consumption of raw milk and cheese made from raw milk (fresh cheese) is the major source of infection in man. Most of the fresh cheeses are sheep and goat cheese. Next to this it is considered to be an occupational disease for people who work in the livestock sector. Human-to-human transmission is very rare.
The most rational approach for preventing human brucellosis is the control and elimination of the infection in animals. Pasteurization of milk is another protective mechanism. Vaccination of cattle is recommended for control of bovine brucellosis in enzootic areas with high prevalence rates. The same holds true for goat and sheep brucellosis. Eradication by testing and culling is the way to the elimination of brucellosis in regions with a low prevalence.
Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the reticuloendothelial system. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.